Involves the decisions on what do students learn, how, and why. Many countries in the Muslim world struggle with demands to reform the curriculum without taking into consideration the need for an organic process of creating curriculum guidelines and materials that are authentic and reflect the context of students in K-12 and in higher education settings.

Published Articles


The number of faculties and universities offering Islamic traditional sciences or studies has slowly increased over the past decades. However, the Islamic community has not felt their graduates’ impact other than as teachers or religious personnel. In fact, if the criteria used to assess Islamic education is the growth of a genuine, original, and adequate Islamic thought or intellectualism, then most of these institutions have failed to provide such an education. I examine the goals and curriculum of higher Islamic education and the conditions conducive for the growth of intellectualism. I argue that poor pedagogy, which does not offer teaching methods that encourage critical and ethical thinking, contributed to the state of affairs. Further, I argue that the basic problem is the inadequate conceptualization of knowledge as regards Islamic epistemology in the curriculum and the lack of academic freedom. I assert that the issue of what knowledge is most valuable for today’s intellectual and ethical Muslims has not been resolved and that this affects the curriculum structure and, inevitably, the programs of Islamic traditional sciences. The need to reintroduce Islamic philosophy into the curriculum is one of this article’s major arguments.

The aim of this article is to highlight a conceptual framework of a well-balanced personality in the light of an Islamic point of view. The article begins with an explanation on the nature of human beings as the underlying concept on which the entire assumption of human personality is based. Further discussion will focus on the types of personality ‒ that is, nafs al-ammārah, nafs al-muţmainnah, and nafs al-lawwāmah. In this regard, the spiritual development process is about the continuous effort of the animal soul to subordinate itself to the power of the rational soul.1 Meanwhile, the educational process ‒ in particular, its methods and the curriculum content ‒ is discussed as an element of intervention in developing good personality traits. The exposition of this article’s writing is derived from scholarly and original sources of knowledge ‒ that is, the Holy Qur’ān and the tradition of the Prophet (ṢAAS), as well as the writings of Muslim scholars to verify and elucidate some of the relevant matters.